The information below details the section headings that you should include in your manuscript and what information should be within each section. Please refer also to the specific instructions for each submission for variations e.g. Letters to the editors or Case Reports
Please note that your manuscript must include a 'Declarations' section including all of the subheadings (please see below for more information).
The title page should:
- present a title that includes, if appropriate, the study design e.g.:
- "A versus B in the treatment of C: a randomized controlled trial", "X is a risk factor for Y: a case-control study", "What is the impact of factor X on subject Y: A systematic review"
- or for non-clinical or non-research studies a description of what the article reports
- list the full names, institutional addresses and email addresses for all authors
- if a collaboration group should be listed as an author, please list the Group name as an author. If you would like the names of the individual members of the Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please include this information in the “Acknowledgements” section in accordance with the instructions below
- indicate the corresponding author
The Abstract should not exceed 500 words. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract. The abstract must include the following separate sections:
- Background: the context and purpose of the study
- Methods: how the study was performed and statistical tests used
- Results: the main findings
- Conclusions: brief summary and potential implications
- Systematic review registration (if appropriate): if your systematic review is registered in a publicly accessible registry, include the name of the registry and registration number.
Three to six words representing the main content of the article.
The Background section should explain the background to the study, its aims, a summary of the existing literature and why this study was necessary or its contribution to the field.
This section should include:
- the aim, design and setting of the study
- the characteristics of participants or description of materials
- a clear description of all processes, interventions and comparisons.
- the type of statistical analysis used, including a power calculation if appropriate
- the software of qualitative analysis -if appropriate
This should include:
1. the findings of the studies for a review submission
2. if appropriate, results of statistical analysis which must be included either in the text or as tables and figures
3. if appropriate, results of the qualitative analysis which must be included either in the text or in the appendix
This section should discuss the implications of the findings in the context of existing research and highlight the limitations of the study.
This should state clearly the main conclusions and provide an explanation of the importance and relevance of the study reported.
List of abbreviations
If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.