Enhancing Peer Learning through Online Placements for Health and Social Care Professions
Keywords:equivalence, online learning, pedagogy, peer learning, placements
This article reports on the innovative design and the delivery of an online placement for university students, in response to the suspension of face-to-face placements due to COVID-19 restrictions in April 2020. A high quality, evidence-based and pedagogically sound experience was built, delivered and reviewed. The online placement not only met the professional standards and demonstrated equivalence in achieving placement learning outcomes, compared to traditional face to face placements, but also offered emergent benefits. The online placement showed enhanced peer learning and improved professional reasoning development by the students. In view of the interest and need for alternative placements, online placements were explored further, contextualised and built into a model which came to be known as Peer-Enhanced E-Placement (PEEP). Throughout 2020, and into 2021, the ‘logjam’ of increased student numbers and reduced placements, dramatically increased the interest in alternative placement learning and the PEEP model. A PEEP professional development acquisition experience was developed and piloted, to disseminate, scale and contextualize the approach by health and social care teams. Feedback from the pilot acquisition experiences indicated that the participants were able to design and implement PEEPs in their own contexts with their students. The scaling up and roll out of the PEEP acquisition experiences now extends to over fifteen professions. Conclusions include that the PEEP model offers a viable, acceptable and successful online practice-based learning option for health and social care students, achieving equivalence in placement learning outcomes and enhanced peer learning.
Al-Husban, N. A. (2020). Critical thinking skills in asynchronous discussion forums: A case study. International Journal of Technology in Education, 3(2), 82–91. https://doi.org/10.46328/ijte.v3i2.22
Bagshaw, K. (2020). Student perceptions about critical thinking. Online Psychiatric Nurse Education [Doctor of Education thesis, Walden University]. Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations/8260
Carr, R., Abu-Saif, H., Boucher, R., & Douglas, K. (2018). Peer-learning to employable: Learnings from an evaluation of PASS attendee and facilitator perceptions of employability at Western Sydney University. Journal of Peer Learning, 11, 41–64. https://ro.uow.edu.au/ajpl/vol11/iss1/4
Chojecki, P., Lamarre, J., Buck, M., St-Sauveur, I., Eldaoud, N., & Purden, M. (2010). Perceptions of a peer learning approach to paediatric clinical education. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 7(1), https://doi.org/10.2202/1548-923X.1893
Department of Health and Social Care. (2019). The Department of Health and Social Care mandate to Health Education England: April 2019 to March 2020. Department of Health and Social Care. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/health-education-england-mandate-2019-to-2020
Land, R., Meyer, F., & Flanagan, M. (2015). Threshold Concepts in Practice. Sense.
Larue, C., Pepin, J., & Allard, E. (2015). Simulation in preparation or substitution for clinical placement: a systematic review. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 5(9), 132–140. https://doi.org/10.5430/jnep.v5n9p132
Lim, C., Jalil, H., Ma’rof, A., & Saad W. (2020). Peer learning, self-regulated learning and academic achievement in blended learning courses: A structural equation modelling approach. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(3), 110–125. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v15i03.12031
Marquez-Alvarez, L., Calvo-Arenillas, J., Talavera-Valverde, M., & Maruno-Millares, P. (2019). Professional reasoning in Occupational Therapy – a scoping review. Occupational Therapy International, 2019, 6238245. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6238245
Nguyen, T. (2015). The Effectiveness of Online learning: Beyond no significant difference and future horizons, MERLOT. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 11(2), 310–319. https://jolt.merlot.org/Vol11no2/Nguyen_0615.pdf
Parkinson, S., Shenfield, M., Reece, K., & Fisher, J. (2011). Enhancing professional reasoning through the use of evidence-based assessments, robust case formulations and measurable goals. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74(3), 148–152. https://doi.org/10.4276/030802211X12996065859364
Pratiwi, M. (2019). Student tutoring, facilitator and explaining models: A problem solving metacognition towards learning achievement of informatics students. Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(2), 145–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.31258/jes.3.2.p.145-154
Ravanipour, M., Bahreini, M., & Ravanipour, M. (2015). Exploring nursing students’ experience of peer learning in clinical practice. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 4(46), PMC4456874. https://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9531.157233
Royal College of Occupational Therapists [RCOT]. (2017). An investigation into Occupational Therapy practice education across the UK. Royal College of Occupational Therapists. https://www.rcot.co.uk/sites/default/files/InvestigationOTpracticeEd%20RCOT.pdf
Royal College of Occupational Therapists [RCOT]. (2019). Learning and development standards for pre-registration education. Royal College of Occupational Therapists.
Royal College of Occupational Therapists [RCOT]. (2020). Delivering student practice placements – Alternative models. Royal College of Occupational Therapists https://www.rcot.co.uk/alternative-practice-placements
Saab, M. M.., Kilty, C., Meehan, E., Goodwin, J., Connaire, S., Buckley, C., Walsh, A., O’Mahony, J., McCarthy, V. J. C., & Horgan, A. (2020). Peer group clinical supervision: Qualitative perspectives from nurse supervisees, managers, and supervisors. Collegian, 28(4), 359–368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colegn.2020.11.004
Salmon, G. (2011). E-moderating: The key to teaching and learning online (3rd ed.). Routledge.
Salmon, G. (2019). May the Fourth be with you: Creating Education 4.0. Journal of Learning for Development, 6(2), 95–115. https://jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/352
Salmon, G. (2020). Testing the equivalence of online and on campus learning. WONKHE blog. https://wonkhe.com/blogs/testing-the-equivalence-of-online-and-on-campus-learning/
Salmon, G. (2021, April 2). It is time for the sector to embrace online placements. Times Higher Education, The Campus blog. https://www.timeshighereducation.com/campus/its-time-sector-embrace-online-work-placements
Savin-Baden, M., Gourlay, L., Tombs, C., Steils, N., Tombs, G., & Mawer, M. (2010). Situating pedagogies, positions and practices in immersive virtual worlds. Journal of Educational Research, 52(2), 123–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2010.482732
Salter, C., Oates, R., Swanson, C., & Bourke, L. (2020). Working remotely: Innovative allied health placements in response to COVID-19. International Journal of Work-integrated Learning, Special Issue 21, 587-600.
Sevenhuysen, S., Thorpe, J., Molloy, E., Keating J., & Haines, T. (2017). Peer-assisted learning in education of allied health professional students in the clinical setting: A systematic review. Journal of Allied Health, 46(1), 26–35.
Tai, J., Penman, M., Chou, C., & Teherani, A. (2021). Learning with and from peers in clinical education. In: D. Nestel, G. Reedy, L. McKenna, & S. Gough (Eds), Clinical Education for the Health Professions. (pp. 1–19). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-6106-7_90-1
Tai, J., & Sevenhuysen, S. (2018). The role of peers in developing evaluative judgement. In D. Boud, R. Ajjawi, P. Dawson, J. Tai (Eds.), Developing evaluative judgement in higher education: Assessment for knowing and producing quality work. (pp. 156–165). Routledge.
Taylor, L. (2020a). Occupational Therapy Virtual Practice Placement – Case study. https://www.hee.nhs.uk/our-work/allied-health-professions/occupational-therapy-virtual-practice-placement
Taylor, L. (2020b, July). PEEP: A virtual alternative placement. OT News, 39–42.
Topping, K. (2005). Trends in peer learning. Educational Psychology, 25(6), 632–645. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443410500345172
Topping, K., Buchs, C., Duran, D., & van Keer, H. (2017). Effective peer learning – From principles to practical implementation. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315695471
Wright, A., & Hibbert, P. (2015). Threshold concepts in theory and practice. Journal of Management Education, 39(4), 443–451. https://doi.org/10.1177/1052562915574866
Zafran, H. (2020). A narrative phenomenological approach to transformational learning: Lessons from Occupational Therapy reasoning in educational practice. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.033100
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License "Attribution-NonCommercial No Derivs 4.0 International" (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which permits others to use the publication as long as the authors are appropriately cited.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The Author grants to Coventry University an irrevocable, royalty-free, worldwide, non-exclusive licence to publish this article in this journal in addition to the licence granted at paragraph 1 of this copyright notice.