Betwixt and Between: A Pilot Study Exploring the Experiences of Clinical Educators Teaching in a Dispersed Model of Entry-Level Physiotherapy Curriculum
Keywords:clinical educator, health sciences, phenomenology, physiotherapy, pracacademic, practice-based education
AbstractEducation of the future healthcare workforce has long been a partnership between university and healthcare sectors, with students learning under the shared guidance of academics and clinicians. Traditionally, academics have taught in the classroom and clinicians have engaged students at the patient bedside. Using a phenomenologically-oriented approach, this pilot project explored the experiences of clinicians who team-taught a theoretical subject in a classroom environment. Purposeful sampling of physiotherapy staff within a metropolitan healthcare organisation was used. Six clinicians were recruited and, prior to teaching, completed a blended educational program about higher education teaching and learning. The clinicians taught classes of twenty students within new classroom spaces co-located at the healthcare organisation, with curricula provided by the university. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with each clinician at the beginning and end of the allocated teaching period. Transcripts from the semi-structured interviews were analysed and four themes emerged. First, physiotherapists initially identified as clinicians not teachers, but their perceptions later broadened. Second, the intention of teaching was patient-focused. Third, the balancing of multiple roles resulted in challenges for the clinicians; and fourth, the experience involved new immersion in digital media. This work explores a different form of educator role – likened to a pracademic – and supports the need for considered approaches to teaching and links between theory/education and practice to meet the demands of modern healthcare and university learning.
Anderson, J.K. (2009) ‘The work role transition of expert clinician to novice academic educator’. Journal of Nursing Education, 48 (4), 203–208 https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20090401-02
Boud, D. (2012) ‘Problematising practice-based education’. in Practice-Based Education Perspectives and Strategies. ed. by Higgs, J., Barnett, R., Billett, S., Hutchings, M., and Trede, F. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense pp. 55-70
Delany, C. and Bragge, P. (2009) ‘A study of physiotherapy students’ and clinical educators’ perceptions of learning and teaching’. Medical Teacher, 31 (9), e402–e411 https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590902832970
DeVita, M.A. (2007) ‘Simulation and the prognosis for the apprenticeship model of health care education’. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, 22 (5), 310–311 https://doi.org/10.1177/0885066607304435
Duffy, R. (2013) ‘Nurse to educator? Academic roles and the formation of personal academic identities’. Nurse Education Today, 33 (6), 620–624 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2012.07.020
Higgs, J. (2012) ‘Practice-based education: The practice-education-context-quality nexus’. in Practice-Based Education Perspectives and Strategies. ed. by Higgs, J., Barnett, R., Billett, S., Hutchings, M., and Trede, F. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Sense, 3–12
Higgs, J. and Hunt, A. (1999) ‘Rethinking the beginning practitioner introducing the “interactional professional”’. in Educating Beginning Practitioners: Challenges for Health Professional Education. ed. by Higgs, J., and Edwards, H. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 10–18
Higgs, J., Hunt, A., Higgs, C., and Neubauer, D. (1999) ‘Physiotherapy education in the changing international healthcare and educational contexts’. Advances in Physiotherapy, 1 (1), 17–26 https://doi.org/10.1080/140381999443528
Hurst, K.M. (2010) ‘Experiences of new physiotherapy lecturers making the shift from clinical practice into academia’. Physiotherapy, 96 (3), 240–247 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2009.11.009
Johnson, R. and Waterfield, J. (2004). ‘Making words count: The value of qualitative research’. Physiotherapy Research International, 9 (3), 121–131 https://doi.org/10.1002/pri.312
Kell, C. and Jones, L. (2007) ‘Mapping placement educators' conceptions of teaching’. Physiotherapy, 93 (4), 273–282 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2006.11.011
Kolb, A.Y. and Kolb, D.A. (2012) ‘Experiential learning theory’. in Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. ed. by Seele, N.M. Boston, MA: Springer, 1215–1219
Korthagen, F.A.J. and Kessels, J.P.A.M. (1999) ‘Linking theory and practice: Changing the pedagogy of teacher education’. Educational Researcher, 28 (4), 4–17 https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X028004004
Lathlean, J. (2007) ‘Researching the implementation of pioneering roles in nursing and midwifery. Empirical Insights about lecturer practitioners, consultant nurses and nurse registrars’. Journal of Research in Nursing, 12 (1), 29–39 https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987106073582
McDaniel, E.A. and Colarulli, G.C. (1997) ‘Collaborative teaching in the face of productivity concerns: The Dispersed Team Model’. Innovative Higher Education, 22 (1), 19–36 https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025147408455
Murray, C., Stanley, M., and Wright, S. (2014) ‘The transition from clinician to academic in nursing and allied health: A qualitative meta-synthesis’. Nurse Education Today, 34 (3), 389–395 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2013.06.010
Nelson, L. and McSherry, R.G.N. (2002) ‘Exploring the lecturer/practitioner role: Individuals perceptions of the lived experience’. Nurse Education in Practice, 2 (2), 109–118 https://doi.org/10.1054/nepr.2002.0061
Öhman, A., Hägg, K., and Dahlgren, L. (2005) ‘A stimulating, practice-based job facing increased stress – Clinical supervisors’ perceptions of professional role, physiotherapy education and the status of the profession’. Advances in Physiotherapy, 7 (3), 114–122 https://doi.org/10.1080/14038190510010359
Orrell, J., Gonda, J., Longson, D., and Edgecombe, K. (1997) ‘Making it all count’. (Paper presented at the Higher Education Research & Development Society of Australia Advancing International Perspectives Conference, Adelaide, Australia
Patton, M.Q. (1999) ‘Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis’. Health Services Research, 34 (5 Part 2), 1189–1208
Posner, P.L. (2009) ‘The pracademic: An agenda for re-engaging practitioners and academics’. Public Budgeting & Finance. 29 (1), 12–26 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5850.2009.00921.x
Rees, C.E. (2017) ‘Short report: Transitions in health professional education: Theory, research and practice’. Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-disciplinary Journal, 18 (3), 4–9 https://doi.org/10.11157/fohpe.v18i3.244
Smith, C. and Boyd, P. (2012) ‘Becoming an academic: The reconstruction of identity by recently appointed lecturers in nursing, midwifery and the allied health professions’. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 49 (1), 63–72 https://doi.org/10.1080/14703297.2012.647784
Smith, M. and Higgs, J. (2013) ‘Health professionals becoming university teachers’. in Educating Health Professionals: Becoming a University Teacher. ed. by Loftus, S., Gerzina, T., Higgs, J., Smith, M., and Duffy, E. Rotterdam: Sense, 15–22
Stevenson, K., Chadwick, A.V., and Hunter, S.M. (2004) ‘National survey of lecturer/practitioners in physiotherapy’. Physiotherapy, 90 (3), 139–144 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2004.01.003
Tom, A.R. (1997) Redesigning Teacher Education. Albany, NY: SUNY Press
van Lankveld, T., Schoonenboom, J., Volman, M., Croiset, G., and Beishuizen, J. (2017) ‘Developing a teacher identity in the university context: A systematic review of the literature’. Higher Education Research & Development, 36 (2), 325–342 https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2016.1208154
van Manen, M. (1990) Researching Lived Experience: Human Science for an Action Sensitive Pedagogy. Albany, NY: SUNY Press
Warner, M.L. (2015) ‘From clinical practice to academia’. The Journal of Physician Assistant Education, 26 (2), 109–110 https://doi.org/10.1097/JPA.0000000000000019
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License "Attribution-NonCommercial No Derivs 4.0 International" (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which permits others to use the publication as long as the authors are appropriately cited.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The Author grants to Coventry University an irrevocable, royalty-free, worldwide, non-exclusive licence to publish this article in this journal in addition to the licence granted at paragraph 1 of this copyright notice.