Health Professions as Distinct Cultures in Interprofessional, Intercultural Clinical Placements: A Pilot Study Exploring Implications for Interprofessional Supervision
This paper reports on a pilot study that incorporated discipline specific clinical skill development with intercultural and interprofessional education (IPE) experiences for eight health professions students on clinical placement in a Disability Program in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to examine students’ experiences of interprofessional work while in an intercultural learning environment.
A mixed methods design explored student perceptions of their experiences and learning in an interprofessional and intercultural context using semi-structured interviews, the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) and the Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory (CCAI) pre- and post-placement. The quantitative measures were used as a means of individual feedback to student and to assist in the interpretation of the qualitative data. Interviews indicated that students agree on the importance of working interprofessionally but perceived adjustment to interprofessional supervision was more challenging than adjustment to the Vietnamese clinical culture. Students scored lowest on Professional Identity (RIPLS) and Personal Autonomy (CCAI).
This study provides an adjunct approach to gaining insight into final year students’ perception of interprofessional work while in an intercultural learning environment. Our small sample size cannot imply student’s definitive attitudes toward IP and IP supervision. However it may suggest that more research combining interprofessional and intercultural learning may contribute to a better understanding of the notion of professions as distinct cultures and students’ perceptions of IPE ‘interculturally’. This may further develop best practice in interprofessional supervision that empowers student learning and reinforces their professional identity.
Adams, K., Hean, S., Sturgis, P., and Clark, J.M. (2006) ‘Investigating the factors influencing Professional identity of 'first-year health and social care students’. Learning in Health and Social Care 5(2), 55-68
Anderson , J. (1988) The supervisory process in speech-language pathology and audiology. Boston: College Hill
Baldry Currens, J. and Bithell, C. (2003). ‘The 2:1 clinical placement model: perceptions of clinical educators and students’. Physiotherapy 89(4), 204-18
Bennett, M. (1993) ‘Towards ethnocentricism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitivity’. in Education for the intercultural experience. ed. by Paige, R.M. 2nd edn. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press., 21–71
Chipchase, L., Allen, S., Eley, D.S., MacAllister, L., and Strong, J. (2012) ‘Interprofessional supervision in an intercultural context: a qualitative study’. Journal of Interprofessional Care 26 (6), 465-471
Copley, J., Allison, H., Hill, A., Moran, M., Tait, J., and Day, T. (2007) ‘Making interprofessional education real: a university clinic model’. Australian Health Review 31(3), 351-357
Creswell, J.W., and Plano Clark, V.L. (2007) Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications
Cushner, K., and Karim, A. (2003) ‘Study Abroad at the University Level’. in Handbook of Intercultural Training. ed. by Landis, D., Bennett, M., and Bennett, J. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 17-28
Daniels, N. (2010) ‘Peer interactions and their benefits during occupational therapy practice placement education’ British Journal of Occupational Therapy 73, 21-28
Dunston,R., Lee, A., Mathews, L., Nisbet, G., Pockett, R., Thistlethwaite, J., and White, J. (2009) Interprofessional health education in Australia: The way forward. Sydney: University of Technology, Sydney and The University of Sydney
Hall, P. (2006) ‘Interprofessional teamwork: Professional cultures as barriers’. Journal of Interprofessional Care 19, 188-196
Hamilton, J. (2009) ‘Intercultural competence in medical education – essential to acquire, difficult to assess’. Medical Teacher 31(9), 862-865
Hanson, L. (2010) ‘Global Citizenship, Global Health, and the Internationalization of Curriculum A Study of Transformative Potential’. Journal of Studies in International Education 14(1), 70-88
Ho, K., Jarvis-Selinger, S., Borduas, F., Blye, F., Hall, P., Handfield-Jones, R., and Hardwick, D.F. (2008) ‘Making interprofessional education work: the strategic roles of the academy’. Academic Medicine 83, 934-940
Horsburgh, M., Perkins, R., Coyle, B., and Degeling, P. (2006) ‘The professional subcultures of students entering medicine, nursing and pharmacy programmes’. Journal of Interprofessional Care 20, 425-431
Jackson, J. (2009) ‘Intercultural learning on short-term sojourns’. Intercultural Education 20, S1-2:S59-71
Kelley, C., and Meyers, J. (1987) Manual for CCAI – Cross-Cultural Adaptability Inventory. Arlington, VA: Vangent.
Kinsella, E.A. (2010) ‘The art of reflective practice in health and social care: reflections on the legacy of Donald Schön’. Reflective Practice 11(4), 565-575
Lave, J., and Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Leask, B. (2009) ‘Using formal and informal curricula to improve interactions between home and international students’. Journal of Studies in International Education 13(2), 205-221
Lewis, R. (2003) The cultural imperative. Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press
Majumdar, B., Keystone, L., and Cuttress, A. (1999) ‘Cultural sensitivity training among foreign medical graduates’. Medical Education 33(3), 177-184
McAllister, L., Whiteford, G., Hill, R., and Thomas, N. (2006) ‘Learning and reflection in professional inter-cultural experience: Qualitative study’. Journal of Reflective Practice 7(3), 367-381
McAllister, L. and Whiteford, G. (2008) ‘Facilitating clinical decision making in students in intercultural fieldwork placements’. in Clinical Reasoning in the Health Professions. ed. by Higgs, J., Jones, M., Loftus, S., and Christensen, N. 3rd edn. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 357-365
McCabe, L.T. (2001) ‘Globalization and internationalization: the impact on education abroad programs’. Journal of Studies in International Education 5(2), 138–145
McFadyen, A.K., Webster, V., Strachan, K., Figgins, E. Brown, H. and McKechnie, J. (2005) ‘The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale: A possible more stable sub-scale model for the original version of RIPLS’. Journal of Interprofessional Care 19(6), 595-603
Merriam, S.B. (1993) ‘Adult learning: Where have we come from? Where are we headed?’ New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 57, 5-14
Murdoch-Eaton, D., Redmond, A., and Bax, N. (2011) ‘Training healthcare professionals for the future: internationalism and effective inclusion of global health training’. Medical Teacher 33 (7), 562-569
Parsell, G., and Bligh, J. (1999) ‘The development of a questionnaire to assess the readiness of health care students for interprofessional learning (RIPLS)’. Medical Education 33, 95-100
Pollard, K., Miers, M.E., and Gilchrist, M. (2005) ‘Second year scepticism: Pre-qualifying health and social care students’ midpoint self-assessment attitudes and perceptions concerning
Interprofessional learning and working’. Journal of Interprofessional Care 19(3), 251-268
Scarvell, J.M., and Stone, J. (2010) ‘An Interprofessional Collaborative Practice model for preparation of clinical educators’. Journal of Interprofessional Care 24(4), 386–400
Simonelis, J., and Njelesani, J. (2011) ‘International fieldwork placements and occupational therapy: Lived experiences of the major stakeholders’. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 58(5), 370-377
Strong, J., Chipchase, L., Allen, S., Eley, D.S., McAllister, L., and Davidson, B. (2014) ‘Interprofessional Learning during an International Fieldwork Placement’. International Journal of Practice-based Learning in Health and Social Care 2(2), 27-39
Thistlethwaite, J. (2008) ‘The future of health professional education: Some reflections on possibilities and complexities’. Journal of Interprofessional Care 22, 129-132
Thistlethwaite, J. (2011) ‘Interprofessional education: a review of context, learning and the research agenda’. Medical Education 46, 58-70
Wetzel, A.P., Mazmanian, P.E., Hojat, M., Kreutzer, K.O., Carrico, R., Carr, C., Veloski, J., and Rafiq, A. (2010) ‘Measuring medical students’ orientation toward lifelong learning: A psychometric evaluation’ Academic Medicine 85, S41–S44
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons License "Attribution-NonCommercial No Derivs 4.0 International" (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) which permits others to use the publication as long as the authors are appropriately cited.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- The Author grants to Coventry University an irrevocable, royalty-free, worldwide, non-exclusive licence to publish this article in this journal in addition to the licence granted at paragraph 1 of this copyright notice.